Jared Jared - 1 year ago 129
Java Question

How can I introspect a freemarker template to find out what variables it uses?

I'm not at all sure that this is even a solvable problem, but supposing that I have a freemarker template, I'd like to be able to ask the template what variables it uses.

For my purposes, we can assume that the freemarker template is very simple - just "root level" entries (the model for such a template could be a simple Map). In other words, I don't need to handle templates that call for nested structures, etc.

Answer Source

I had the same task to get the list of variables from template on java side and don't found any good approaches to that except using reflection. I'm not sure whether there is a better way to get this data or not but here's my approach:

public Set<String> referenceSet(Template template) throws TemplateModelException {
    Set<String> result = new HashSet<>();
    TemplateElement rootTreeNode = template.getRootTreeNode();
    for (int i = 0; i < rootTreeNode.getChildCount(); i++) {
        TemplateModel templateModel = rootTreeNode.getChildNodes().get(i);
        if (!(templateModel instanceof StringModel)) {
        Object wrappedObject = ((StringModel) templateModel).getWrappedObject();
        if (!"DollarVariable".equals(wrappedObject.getClass().getSimpleName())) {

        try {
            Object expression = getInternalState(wrappedObject, "expression");
            switch (expression.getClass().getSimpleName()) {
                case "Identifier":
                    result.add(getInternalState(expression, "name").toString());
                case "DefaultToExpression":
                    result.add(getInternalState(expression, "lho").toString());
                case "BuiltinVariable":
                    throw new IllegalStateException("Unable to introspect variable");
        } catch (NoSuchFieldException | IllegalAccessException e) {
            throw new TemplateModelException("Unable to reflect template model");
    return result;

private Object getInternalState(Object o, String fieldName) throws NoSuchFieldException, IllegalAccessException {
    Field field = o.getClass().getDeclaredField(fieldName);
    boolean wasAccessible = field.isAccessible();
    try {
        return field.get(o);
    } finally {
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