Nicholas - 1 month ago 6
C++ Question

# Error using std::bind and std::function in C++

I attempt to try my snippet of Newton's method on a multivariate function and used

`std::bind`
and
`std::function`
. But I was stuck on an error

error: conversion from 'std::_Bind_helper&, int>::type {aka
std::_Bind, int))(double, double,
double)>}' to non-scalar type 'std::function'
requested

What does this error message mean and how should I fix my current code?

``````#include <iostream>
#include<functional>
#include<cmath>

double newton(std::function<double(double)> F, std::function<double(double)> f,
double x=0, int maxiter=1000, double epsilon=0.001)
{
int n = 0;
while((n < maxiter) && (fabs(F(x)) > epsilon))
{
x = x - F(x) / f(x);
n++;
}
return x;
}

// I'd like to fix x and z at 1 and 2 and find root for y
double ftest(double x, double y, double z)
{
return x * x + (y * y - 2 * y - 4) + z * z;
}

// Partial derivative of ftest with regards to y
double ftest1(double y)
{
return 2 * y - 2;
}

int main()
{
using namespace std::placeholders;
std::function<double(double)> F = std::bind(ftest, 1, _2, 2);
std::function<double(double)> f = ftest1;
std::cout << newton(F, f);
return 0;
}
``````

The problem here:

``````std::function<double(double)> F = std::bind(ftest, 1, _2, 2);
``````

is that `F` is a function that takes a single argument of type `double`, but your bind expression involves `_2` - which refers to the second argument passed to the function object that `bind()` returns. That is, the second argument. Basically, you're constructing this function object, roughly:

``````struct {
template <class T, class U>
auto operator()(T, U arg) {
return ftest(1, arg, 2);
}
};
``````

That object takes two arguments. `std::function<double(double)>` doesn't allow for that - it requires that your callable allow for a single argument.

The simple fix is to fix the placeholder:

``````std::function<double(double)> F = std::bind(ftest, 1, _1, 2);
``````

or, better, just don't use `bind()` at all and prefer a lambda:

``````std::function<double(double)> F = [](double y) { return ftest(1, y, 2); }
``````
Source (Stackoverflow)