Peter - 2 months ago 10x
Python Question

# Different results in numpy vs matlab

I'm trying to implement a gradient descent algorithm that was previously written in matlab in python with numpy, but I'm getting a set of similar but different results.

Here's the matlab code

``````function [theta] = gradientDescentMulti(X, y, theta, alpha, num_iters)

m = length(y);
num_features = size(X,2);
for iter = 1:num_iters;
temp_theta = theta;
for i = 1:num_features
temp_theta(i) = theta(i)-((alpha/m)*(X * theta - y)'*X(:,i));
end
theta = temp_theta;
end

end
``````

and my python version

``````def gradient_descent(X,y, alpha, trials):

m = X.shape[0]
n = X.shape[1]
theta = np.zeros((n, 1))

for i in range(trials):

temp_theta = theta
for p in range(n):
thetaX = np.dot(X, theta)
tMinY = thetaX-y
temp_theta[p] = temp_theta[p]-(alpha/m)*np.dot(tMinY.T, X[:,p:p+1])

theta = temp_theta

return theta
``````

Test case and results in matlab

``````X = [1 2 1 3; 1 7 1 9; 1 1 8 1; 1 3 7 4]
y = [2 ; 5 ; 5 ; 6];
[theta] = gradientDescentMulti(X, y, zeros(4,1), 0.01, 1);

theta =

0.0450
0.1550
0.2225
0.2000
``````

test case and result in python

``````test_X = np.array([[1,2,1,3],[1,7,1,9],[1,1,8,1],[1,3,7,4]])
test_y = np.array([[2], [5], [5], [6]])
theta, cost = gradient_descent(test_X, test_y, 0.01, 1)
print theta
>>[[ 0.045     ]
[ 0.1535375 ]
[ 0.20600144]
[ 0.14189214]]
``````

``````    temp_theta = theta
``````

doesn't do what you think it does. It doesn't make a copy of `theta` and "assign" it to the "variable" `temp_theta` -- it just says "`temp_theta` is now a new name for the object currently named by `theta`".

So when you modify `temp_theta` here:

``````        temp_theta[p] = temp_theta[p]-(alpha/m)*np.dot(tMinY.T, X[:,p:p+1])
``````

You're actually modifying `theta` -- because there's only the one array, now with two names.

``````    temp_theta = theta.copy()
``````

you'll get something like

``````(3.5) dsm@notebook:~/coding\$ python peter.py
[[ 0.045 ]
[ 0.155 ]
[ 0.2225]
[ 0.2   ]]
``````