ihsansat ihsansat - 21 days ago 11
Python Question

Why use pandas qcut return ValueError: Bin edges must be unique?

i have dataset :

recency;frequency;monetary
21;156;41879955
13;88;16850284
8;74;79150488
2;74;26733719
9;55;16162365
...;...;...


detail raw data -> http://pastebin.com/beiEeS80
and i put into
DataFrame
and here is my complete code :

df = pd.DataFrame(datas, columns=['userid', 'recency', 'frequency', 'monetary'])
df['recency'] = df['recency'].astype(float)
df['frequency'] = df['frequency'].astype(float)
df['monetary'] = df['monetary'].astype(float)

df['recency'] = pd.qcut(df['recency'].values, 5).codes + 1
df['frequency'] = pd.qcut(df['frequency'].values, 5).codes + 1
df['monetary'] = pd.qcut(df['monetary'].values, 5).codes + 1


but it's return error

df['frequency'] = pd.qcut(df['frequency'].values, 5).codes + 1
ValueError: Bin edges must be unique: array([ 1., 1., 2., 4., 9., 156.])


how solved this ?

thx

Answer

I ran this in Jupyter and placed the exampledata.txt to the same directory as the notebook.

Please note that the first line:

df = pd.DataFrame(datas, columns=['userid', 'recency', 'frequency', 'monetary'])

loads the colums 'userid' when it isn't defined in the data file. I removed this column name.

Solution

import pandas as pd

def pct_rank_qcut(series, n):
    edges = pd.Series([float(i) / n for i in range(n + 1)])
    f = lambda x: (edges >= x).argmax()
    return series.rank(pct=1).apply(f)

datas = pd.read_csv('./exampledata.txt', delimiter=';')

df = pd.DataFrame(datas, columns=['recency', 'frequency', 'monetary'])

df['recency'] = df['recency'].astype(float)
df['frequency'] = df['frequency'].astype(float)
df['monetary'] = df['monetary'].astype(float)

df['recency'] = pct_rank_qcut(df.recency, 5)
df['frequency'] = pct_rank_qcut(df.frequency, 5)
df['monetary'] = pct_rank_qcut(df.monetary, 5)

Explanation

The problem you were seeing was a result of pd.qcut assuming 5 bins of equal size. In the data you provided, 'frequency' has more than 28% number 1's. This broke qcut.

I provided a new function pct_rank_qcut that addresses this and pushes all 1's into the first bin.

    edges = pd.Series([float(i) / n for i in range(n + 1)])

This line defines a series of percentile edges based on the desired number of bins defined by n. In the case of n = 5 the edges will be [0.0, 0.2, 0.4, 0.6, 0.8, 1.0]

    f = lambda x: (edges >= x).argmax()

this line defines a helper function to be applied to another series in the next line. edges >= x will return a series equal in length to edges where each element is True or False depending on whether x is less than or equal to that edge. In the case of x = 0.14 the resulting (edges >= x) will be [False, True, True, True, True, True]. By the taking the argmax() I've identified the first index where the series is True, in this case 1.

    return series.rank(pct=1).apply(f)

This line takes the input series and turns it into a percentile ranking. I can compare these rankings to the edges I've created and that's why I use the apply(f). What's returned should be a series of bin numbers numbered 1 to n. This series of bin numbers is the same thing you were trying to get with:

pd.qcut(df['recency'].values, 5).codes + 1

This has consequences in that the bins are no longer equal and that bin 1 borrows completely from bin 2. But some choice had to be made. If you don't like this choice, use the concept to build your own ranking.

Demonstration

print df.head()

   recency  frequency  monetary
0        3          5         5
1        2          5         5
2        2          5         5
3        1          5         5
4        2          5         5
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