TheLegendaryCopyCoder TheLegendaryCopyCoder - 1 month ago 14
C# Question

C# WMI HDD S.M.A.R.T

I'm looking for code which makes available a HDD's SMART registers (using WMI or other), ideally in the following or similar format:

Register Name - Current Value, Worst Value, Threshold Value, Data (Vendor) and SMART Status.

Many of the WMI implementations I've found so far do not provide a threshold Value or are missing one or more of the standard SMART fields (i.e. Current, Worst, Threshold).

Answer

After some work, I've put together code returning a comprehensive report of all relevant SMART information for a HDD using C#/WMI.

As drawn from here, this is the code:

/*
Copyright (c) 2013, Llewellyn Kruger
All rights reserved.
Redistribution and use in source and binary forms, with or without modification, are permitted provided that the following conditions are met:
Redistributions of source code must retain the above copyright notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer.
Redistributions in binary form must reproduce the above copyright notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer in the documentation and/or other materials provided with the distribution.
THIS SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED BY THE COPYRIGHT HOLDERS AND CONTRIBUTORS “AS IS” AND ANY EXPRESS OR IMPLIED WARRANTIES, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE ARE DISCLAIMED. IN NO EVENT SHALL THE COPYRIGHT HOLDER OR CONTRIBUTORS BE LIABLE FOR ANY DIRECT, INDIRECT, INCIDENTAL, SPECIAL, EXEMPLARY, OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES (INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, PROCUREMENT OF SUBSTITUTE GOODS OR SERVICES; LOSS OF USE, DATA, OR PROFITS; OR BUSINESS INTERRUPTION) HOWEVER CAUSED AND ON ANY THEORY OF LIABILITY, WHETHER IN CONTRACT, STRICT LIABILITY, OR TORT (INCLUDING NEGLIGENCE OR OTHERWISE) ARISING IN ANY WAY OUT OF THE USE OF THIS SOFTWARE, EVEN IF ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGE. 
*/
using System;
using System.Collections.Generic;
using System.Management;

  public class HDD
  {

    public int Index { get; set; }
    public bool IsOK { get; set; }
    public string Model { get; set; }
    public string Type { get; set; }
    public string Serial { get; set; }
    public Dictionary<int, Smart> Attributes = new Dictionary<int, Smart>() {
                {0x00, new Smart("Invalid")},
                {0x01, new Smart("Raw read error rate")},
                {0x02, new Smart("Throughput performance")},
                {0x03, new Smart("Spinup time")},
                {0x04, new Smart("Start/Stop count")},
                {0x05, new Smart("Reallocated sector count")},
                {0x06, new Smart("Read channel margin")},
                {0x07, new Smart("Seek error rate")},
                {0x08, new Smart("Seek timer performance")},
                {0x09, new Smart("Power-on hours count")},
                {0x0A, new Smart("Spinup retry count")},
                {0x0B, new Smart("Calibration retry count")},
                {0x0C, new Smart("Power cycle count")},
                {0x0D, new Smart("Soft read error rate")},
                {0xB8, new Smart("End-to-End error")},
                {0xBE, new Smart("Airflow Temperature")},
                {0xBF, new Smart("G-sense error rate")},
                {0xC0, new Smart("Power-off retract count")},
                {0xC1, new Smart("Load/Unload cycle count")},
                {0xC2, new Smart("HDD temperature")},
                {0xC3, new Smart("Hardware ECC recovered")},
                {0xC4, new Smart("Reallocation count")},
                {0xC5, new Smart("Current pending sector count")},
                {0xC6, new Smart("Offline scan uncorrectable count")},
                {0xC7, new Smart("UDMA CRC error rate")},
                {0xC8, new Smart("Write error rate")},
                {0xC9, new Smart("Soft read error rate")},
                {0xCA, new Smart("Data Address Mark errors")},
                {0xCB, new Smart("Run out cancel")},
                {0xCC, new Smart("Soft ECC correction")},
                {0xCD, new Smart("Thermal asperity rate (TAR)")},
                {0xCE, new Smart("Flying height")},
                {0xCF, new Smart("Spin high current")},
                {0xD0, new Smart("Spin buzz")},
                {0xD1, new Smart("Offline seek performance")},
                {0xDC, new Smart("Disk shift")},
                {0xDD, new Smart("G-sense error rate")},
                {0xDE, new Smart("Loaded hours")},
                {0xDF, new Smart("Load/unload retry count")},
                {0xE0, new Smart("Load friction")},
                {0xE1, new Smart("Load/Unload cycle count")},
                {0xE2, new Smart("Load-in time")},
                {0xE3, new Smart("Torque amplification count")},
                {0xE4, new Smart("Power-off retract count")},
                {0xE6, new Smart("GMR head amplitude")},
                {0xE7, new Smart("Temperature")},
                {0xF0, new Smart("Head flying hours")},
                {0xFA, new Smart("Read error retry rate")},
                /* slot in any new codes you find in here */
            };

  }

  public class Smart
  {
    public bool HasData
    {
      get
      {
        if (Current == 0 && Worst == 0 && Threshold == 0 && Data == 0)
          return false;
        return true;
      }
    }
    public string Attribute { get; set; }
    public int Current { get; set; }
    public int Worst { get; set; }
    public int Threshold { get; set; }
    public int Data { get; set; }
    public bool IsOK{ get; set; }

    public Smart()
    {

    }

    public Smart(string attributeName)
    {
      this.Attribute = attributeName;
    }
  }

  /// <summary>
  /// Tested against Crystal Disk Info 5.3.1 and HD Tune Pro 3.5 on 15 Feb 2013.
  /// Findings; I do not trust the individual smart register "OK" status reported back frm the drives.
  /// I have tested faulty drives and they return an OK status on nearly all applications except HD Tune. 
  /// After further research I see HD Tune is checking specific attribute values against their thresholds
  /// and and making a determination of their own (which is good) for whether the disk is in good condition or not.
  /// I recommend whoever uses this code to do the same. For example -->
  /// "Reallocated sector count" - the general threshold is 36, but even if 1 sector is reallocated I want to know about it and it should be flagged.   
  /// </summary>
  public class Program
  {
    public static void Main()
    {
      try
      {          

          // retrieve list of drives on computer (this will return both HDD's and CDROM's and Virtual CDROM's)                    
          var dicDrives = new Dictionary<int, HDD>();

          var wdSearcher = new ManagementObjectSearcher("SELECT * FROM Win32_DiskDrive");

          // extract model and interface information
          int iDriveIndex = 0;
          foreach (ManagementObject drive in wdSearcher.Get())
          {
            var hdd = new HDD();
            hdd.Model = drive["Model"].ToString().Trim();
            hdd.Type = drive["InterfaceType"].ToString().Trim();
            dicDrives.Add(iDriveIndex, hdd); 
            iDriveIndex++;
          }

          var pmsearcher = new ManagementObjectSearcher("SELECT * FROM Win32_PhysicalMedia");          

          // retrieve hdd serial number
          iDriveIndex = 0;
          foreach (ManagementObject drive in pmsearcher.Get())
          {
            // because all physical media will be returned we need to exit
            // after the hard drives serial info is extracted
            if (iDriveIndex >= dicDrives.Count)
              break;

            dicDrives[iDriveIndex].Serial = drive["SerialNumber"] == null ? "None" : drive["SerialNumber"].ToString().Trim();                   
            iDriveIndex++;
          }

          // get wmi access to hdd 
          var searcher = new ManagementObjectSearcher("Select * from Win32_DiskDrive");
          searcher.Scope = new ManagementScope(@"\root\wmi");      

          // check if SMART reports the drive is failing
          searcher.Query = new ObjectQuery("Select * from MSStorageDriver_FailurePredictStatus");          
          iDriveIndex = 0;
          foreach (ManagementObject drive in searcher.Get())
          {
            dicDrives[iDriveIndex].IsOK = (bool)drive.Properties["PredictFailure"].Value == false;       
            iDriveIndex++;
          }

          // retrive attribute flags, value worste and vendor data information
          searcher.Query = new ObjectQuery("Select * from MSStorageDriver_FailurePredictData");
          iDriveIndex = 0;  
          foreach (ManagementObject data in searcher.Get())
          {              
              Byte[] bytes = (Byte[])data.Properties["VendorSpecific"].Value;
              for (int i = 0; i < 30; ++i)
              {
                try
                {                  
                  int id = bytes[i*12 + 2];

                  int flags = bytes[i * 12 + 4]; // least significant status byte, +3 most significant byte, but not used so ignored.
                  //bool advisory = (flags & 0x1) == 0x0;
                  bool failureImminent = (flags & 0x1) == 0x1;
                  //bool onlineDataCollection = (flags & 0x2) == 0x2;

                  int value = bytes[i*12 + 5];
                  int worst = bytes[i*12 + 6];
                  int vendordata = BitConverter.ToInt32(bytes, i*12 + 7);
                  if (id == 0) continue;

                  var attr = dicDrives[iDriveIndex].Attributes[id];
                  attr.Current = value;
                  attr.Worst = worst;
                  attr.Data = vendordata;
                  attr.IsOK = failureImminent == false;
                }
                catch
                {
                  // given key does not exist in attribute collection (attribute not in the dictionary of attributes)
                }                
              }
              iDriveIndex++;
          }

          // retreive threshold values foreach attribute
          searcher.Query = new ObjectQuery("Select * from MSStorageDriver_FailurePredictThresholds");
          iDriveIndex = 0;
          foreach (ManagementObject data in searcher.Get())
          {
            Byte[] bytes = (Byte[])data.Properties["VendorSpecific"].Value;
            for (int i = 0; i < 30; ++i)
            {
              try
              {

                int id = bytes[i*12 + 2];
                int thresh = bytes[i*12 + 3];
                if (id == 0) continue;

                var attr = dicDrives[iDriveIndex].Attributes[id];
                attr.Threshold = thresh;
              }
              catch
              {
                // given key does not exist in attribute collection (attribute not in the dictionary of attributes)
              }
            }

            iDriveIndex++;
          }


        // print
        foreach (var drive in dicDrives)
        {
          Console.WriteLine("-----------------------------------------------------");
          Console.WriteLine(" DRIVE ({0}): " + drive.Value.Serial + " - " + drive.Value.Model + " - " + drive.Value.Type, ((drive.Value.IsOK) ? "OK" : "BAD"));
          Console.WriteLine("-----------------------------------------------------");
          Console.WriteLine("");

          Console.WriteLine("ID                   Current  Worst  Threshold  Data  Status");
          foreach (var attr in drive.Value.Attributes)
          {
            if (attr.Value.HasData)
              Console.WriteLine("{0}\t {1}\t {2}\t {3}\t " + attr.Value.Data + " " + ((attr.Value.IsOK) ? "OK" : ""), attr.Value.Attribute, attr.Value.Current, attr.Value.Worst, attr.Value.Threshold);            
          }
          Console.WriteLine();
          Console.WriteLine();
          Console.WriteLine();
        }

        Console.ReadLine();
      }
      catch (ManagementException e)
      {
        Console.WriteLine("An error occurred while querying for WMI data: " + e.Message);
      }
    }
  }
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