The Number type has exactly 18437736874454810627 (that is, 264−253+3)
values, representing the double-precision 64-bit format IEEE 754
values as specified in the IEEE Standard for Binary Floating-Point
You can use typed arrays to examine the raw bytes of a number. Create a
Float64Array with one element, and then create a
Uint8Array with the same buffer. You can then set the first element of the float array to your number, and examine the bytes via the
Uint8Array. You'll have to do some shifting and combining for the various pieces of the number of course, but it's not hard.
There are no built-in facilities to do things like extract the exponent.