Froglegs - 21 days ago 5

C++ Question

If you have an input array, and an output array, but you only want to write those elements which pass a certain condition, what would be the most efficient way to do this in AVX2?

I've seen in SSE where it was done like this:

(From:https://deplinenoise.files.wordpress.com/2015/03/gdc2015_afredriksson_simd.pdf)

`__m128i LeftPack_SSSE3(__m128 mask, __m128 val)`

{

// Move 4 sign bits of mask to 4-bit integer value.

int mask = _mm_movemask_ps(mask);

// Select shuffle control data

__m128i shuf_ctrl = _mm_load_si128(&shufmasks[mask]);

// Permute to move valid values to front of SIMD register

__m128i packed = _mm_shuffle_epi8(_mm_castps_si128(val), shuf_ctrl);

return packed;

}

This seems fine for SSE which is 4 wide, and thus only needs a 16 entry LUT, but for AVX which is 8 wide, the LUT becomes quite large(256 entries, each 32 bytes, or 8k).

I'm surprised that AVX doesn't appear to have an instruction for simplifying this process, such as a masked store with packing.

I think with some bit shuffling to count the # of sign bits set to the left you could generate the necessary permutation table, and then call _mm256_permutevar8x32_ps. But this is also quite a few instructions I think..

Does anyone know of any tricks to do this with AVX2? Or what is the most efficient method?

Here is an illustration of the Left Packing Problem from the above document:

Thanks

Answer

AVX2 + BMI2. See my other answer for AVX512. (Update: saved a `pdep`

in 64bit builds.)

We can use AVX2 `vpermps`

(`_mm256_permutevar8x32_ps`

) (or the integer equivalent, `vpermd`

) to do a lane-crossing variable-shuffle.

**We can generate masks on the fly**, since BMI2 `pext`

(Parallel Bits Extract) provides us with a bitwise version of the operation we need.

**For integer vectors with 32-bit or wider elements**: Either 1) `_mm256_movemask_ps(_mm256_castsi256_ps(compare_mask))`

.

Or 2) use `_mm256_movemask_epi8`

and then change the first PDEP constant from 0x0101010101010101 to 0x0F0F0F0F0F0F0F0F to scatter blocks of 4 contiguous bits. Change the multiply by 0xFFU into `expanded_mask |= expanded_mask<<4;`

or `expanded_mask *= 0x11;`

(Not tested). Either way, use the shuffle mask with VPERMD instead of VPERMPS.

**For 64-bit integer or double elements, everything still Just Works**; The compare-mask just happens to always have pairs of 32-bit elements that are the same, so the resulting shuffle puts both halves of each 64-bit element in the right place. (So you still use VPERMPS or VPERMD, because VPERMPD and VPERMQ are only available with immediate control operands.)

Start with a constant of packed 3 bit indices, with each position holding its own index. i.e. `[ 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 ]`

where each element is 3 bits wide. `0b111'110'101'...'010'001'000`

.

Use `pext`

to extract the indices we want into a contiguous sequence at the bottom of an integer register. e.g. if we want indices 0 and 2, our control-mask for `pext`

should be `0b000'...'111'000'111`

. `pext`

will grab the `010`

and `000`

index groups that line up with the 1 bits in the selector. The selected groups are packed into the low bits of the output, so the output will be `0b000'...'010'000`

. (i.e. `[ ... 2 0 ]`

)

See the commented code for how to generate the `0b111000111`

input for `pext`

from the input vector mask.

Now we're in the same boat as the compressed-LUT: unpack up to 8 packed indices.

By the time you put all the pieces together, there are three total `pext`

/`pdep`

s. I worked backwards from what I wanted, so it's probably easiest to understand it in that direction, too. (i.e. start with the shuffle line, and work backward from there.)

**We can simplify the unpacking if we work with indices one per byte instead of in packed 3-bit groups**. Since we have 8 indices, this is only possible with 64bit code.

See this and a 32bit-only version on the Godbolt Compiler Explorer. I used `#ifdef`

s so it compiles optimally with `-m64`

or `-m32`

. gcc wastes some instructions, but clang makes really nice code.

```
#include <stdint.h>
#include <immintrin.h>
// Uses 64bit pdep / pext to save a step in unpacking.
__m256 compress256(__m256 src, unsigned int mask /* from movmskps */)
{
uint64_t expanded_mask = _pdep_u64(mask, 0x0101010101010101); // unpack each bit to a byte
expanded_mask *= 0xFF; // mask |= mask<<1 | mask<<2 | ... | mask<<7;
// ABC... -> AAAAAAAABBBBBBBBCCCCCCCC...: replicate each bit to fill its byte
const uint64_t identity_indices = 0x0706050403020100; // the identity shuffle for vpermps, packed to one index per byte
uint64_t wanted_indices = _pext_u64(identity_indices, expanded_mask);
__m128i bytevec = _mm_cvtsi64_si128(wanted_indices);
__m256i shufmask = _mm256_cvtepu8_epi32(bytevec);
return _mm256_permutevar8x32_ps(src, shufmask);
}
```

This compiles to code with no loads from memory, only immediate constants. (See the godbolt link for this and the 32bit version).

```
# clang 3.7.1 -std=gnu++14 -O3 -march=haswell
mov eax, edi # just to zero extend: goes away when inlining
movabs rcx, 72340172838076673 # The constants are hoisted after inlining into a loop
pdep rax, rax, rcx # ABC -> 0000000A0000000B....
imul rax, rax, 255 # 0000000A0000000B.. -> AAAAAAAABBBBBBBB..
movabs rcx, 506097522914230528
pext rax, rcx, rax
vmovq xmm1, rax
vpmovzxbd ymm1, xmm1 # 3c latency since this is lane-crossing
vpermps ymm0, ymm1, ymm0
ret
```

So, according to Agner Fog's numbers, this is 6 uops (not counting the constants, or the zero-extending mov that disappears when inlined). On Intel Haswell, it's 16c latency (1 for vmovq, 3 for each pdep/imul/pext / vpmovzx / vpermps). There's no instruction-level parallelism. In a loop where this isn't part of a loop-carried dependency, though, (like the one I included in the Godbolt link), the bottleneck is hopefully just throughput, keeping multiple iterations of this in flight at once.

This can maybe manage a throughput of one per 3 cycles, bottlenecked on port1 for pdep/pext/imul. Of course, with loads/stores and loop overhead (including the compare, movmsk, and popcnt), total uop throughput can easily be an issue. (e.g. the filter loop in my godbolt link is 14 uops with clang, with `-fno-unroll-loops`

to make it easier to read. It might sustain one iteration per 4c, keeping up with the front-end, if we're lucky, but I think clang failed to account for `popcnt`

's false dependency on its output, so it will bottleneck on 3/5ths of the latency of the `compress256`

function.)

gcc does the multiply by 0xFF with multiple instructions, using a left shift by 8 and a `sub`

. This takes an extra `mov`

instructions, but the end result is a multiply with a latency of 2. (Haswell handles `mov`

at register-rename stage with zero latency.)

Since all hardware that supports AVX2 also supports BMI2, there's probably no point providing a version for AVX2 without BMI2.

If you need to do this in a very long loop, the LUT is probably worth it if the initial cache-misses are amortized over enough iterations with the lower overhead of just unpacking the LUT entry. You still need to `movmskps`

, so you can popcnt the mask and use it as a LUT index, but you save a pdep/imul/pexp.

You can unpack LUT entries with the same integer sequence I used, but @Froglegs's `set1()`

/ `vpsrlvd`

/ `vpand`

is probably better when the LUT entry starts in memory and doesn't need to go into integer registers in the first place. (A 32bit broadcast-load doesn't need an ALU uop on Intel CPUs). However, a variable-shift is 3 uops on Haswell (but only 1 on Skylake).