user3605834 user3605834 - 7 months ago 53
Python Question

Typerror in machine learning tutorial, numpy

This is the notebook that's giving me a problem: https://github.com/justmarkham/scikit-learn-videos/blob/master/07_cross_validation.ipynb

from sklearn.cross_validation import KFold
kf = KFold(25, n_folds=5, shuffle=False)

# print the contents of each training and testing set
print('{} {:^61} {}'.format('Iteration', 'Training set observations',
'Testing set observations'))
for iteration, data in enumerate(kf, start=1):
print('{:^9} {} {:^25}'.format(iteration, data[0], data[1]))


This is the error I get:

TypeError: unsupported format string passed to numpy.ndarray.__format__


I don't really know where to start because I'm not that familiar with numpy.

Answer Source

It seems it's just missing the explicit string conversion:

from sklearn.cross_validation import KFold
kf = KFold(25, n_folds=5, shuffle=False)

# print the contents of each training and testing set
print('{} {:^61} {}'.format('Iteration', 
                            'Training set observations', 
                            'Testing set observations'))
for iteration, data in enumerate(kf, start=1):
    print('{:^9} {} {:^25}'.format(iteration, data[0], str(data[1])))

or:

    print('{:^9} {} {!s:^25}'.format(iteration, data[0], data[1]))

The !s is just another way of converting it to a string.

In general the formatting mini-language is explained in "Format Specification Mini-Language"