OneMoreError - 5 months ago 23

C Question

I was solving the N Queen problem where we need to place N queens on a N X N chess board such that no two queens can attack each other.

`#include <stdio.h>`

#include <stdlib.h>

#include<math.h>

int size=8;

char arr[8][8];

int i,j;

void initializeBoard()

{

for(i=0;i<size;i++)

{

for(j=0;j<size;j++)

{

arr[i][j]='.';

}

}

}

void printArray()

{

for(i=0;i<size;i++)

{

for(j=0;j<size;j++)

{

printf("%c\t",arr[i][j]);

}

printf("\n");

}

printf("\n\n");

}

void placeQueen(int i,int j)

{

arr[i][j]='Q';

}

int isAvailable(int i,int j)

{

int m,n,flag;

for(m=0;m<i;m++)

{

for(n=0;n<size;n++)

{

int k=abs(i-m);

int l=abs(j-n);

if(arr[m][j]!='Q' && arr[k][l]!='Q')

{

flag=1;

}

else

{

flag=0;

break;

}

}

}

return flag;

}

int main(void)

{

initializeBoard();

for(i=0;i<size;i++)

{

for(j=0;j<size;j++)

{

if(isAvailable(i,j)==1)

{

// means that particular position is available

// and so we place the queen there

placeQueen(i,j);

break;

}

}

}

printArray();

return 0;

}

I think the problem is with the isAvailable() method. However, I am not able to find the bug. Please help me identify it.

Answer

Your approach does not backtrack. It iterates over some possibilities, not all. This problems is best solved recursively, so I wouldn't do it as you are doing. You have to define the rules for a Queen being attacked by other. You do it using `ifs`

, and recursion to apply the rule again and to iterate. Most of the backtracking algorithms are written recursively.
I will give you an answer, so you can base yours on mine.

```
#include <stdio.h>
#include <stdlib.h>
int count = 0;
void solve(int n, int col, int *hist)
{
int i, j;
if (col == n) {
printf("\nNo. %d\n-----\n", ++count);
for (i = 0; i < n; i++, putchar('\n'))
for (j = 0; j < n; j++)
putchar(j == hist[i] ? 'Q' : ((i + j) & 1) ? ' ' : '.');
return;
}
# define attack(i, j) (hist[j] == i || abs(hist[j] - i) == col - j)
for (int i = 0, j = 0; i < n; i++) {
for (j = 0; j < col && !attack(i, j); j++);
if (j < col) continue;
hist[col] = i;
solve(n, col + 1, hist);
}
}
int main(int n, char **argv)
{
if (n <= 1 || (n = atoi(argv[1])) <= 0) n = 8;
int hist[n];
solve(n, 0, hist);
}
```

The way backtracking works in the following:

- create a constraint (a rule) to check if the conditions are meet.
- Consider the problem as a
**search tree**. The time spent to search this tree is based on`n`

, the size of the board. The best way to search is recursively, so have in mind, the smart way to solve is using recursion. - In that code, the first set of
`for`

loops just prints the board out, and checks if`Q`

if found. `# define attack(i, j) (hist[j] == i || abs(hist[j] - i) == col - j)`

is my rule, which asserts 2 queens are not attacking each other.- The second set of
`for`

loops finds a condition which another queen can be inserted, within the constraint rules. - Then I call find function again. That's how the backtracking is done.
- My base case is that 2 queens can be on the board, then I'm going recursively check if another queen can be added until 8. Thus, 2 + 1 = (1+1) + 1 = 1 (1 + 1). Applying the rule again, we have 3 + 1 = (2) + 1 + 1 = (2) + (1 + 1), and again 4 = (3) + 1 + 1 = (3) + (1+1).
- Recursion does that for you. Let out apply the rule over and over. So
`f(n+1) = f(n) + 1`

for that case and`f(2) = 2`

is my base case. - The base of backtracking is if one of those branches don't work out, you can go one level up and search another branch, and so on, until the tree is all searched out. Again, recursion is the way to go.