Raphael Roth Raphael Roth - 2 months ago 20
Python Question

multidimensional confidence intervals

I have numerous tuples (par1,par2), i.e. points in a 2 dimensional parameter space obtained from repeating an experiment multiple times.

I'm looking for a possibility to calculate and visualize confidence ellipses (not sure if thats the correct term for this). Here an example plot that I found in the web to show what I mean:

enter image description here

source: blogspot.ch/2011/07/classification-and-discrimination-with.html

So in principle one has to fit a multivariate normal distribution to a 2D histogram of data points I guess. Can somebody help me with this?

Answer

It sounds like you just want the 2-sigma ellipse of the scatter of points?

If so, consider something like this (From some code for a paper here: https://github.com/joferkington/oost_paper_code/blob/master/error_ellipse.py):

import numpy as np

import matplotlib.pyplot as plt
from matplotlib.patches import Ellipse

def plot_point_cov(points, nstd=2, ax=None, **kwargs):
    """
    Plots an `nstd` sigma ellipse based on the mean and covariance of a point
    "cloud" (points, an Nx2 array).

    Parameters
    ----------
        points : An Nx2 array of the data points.
        nstd : The radius of the ellipse in numbers of standard deviations.
            Defaults to 2 standard deviations.
        ax : The axis that the ellipse will be plotted on. Defaults to the 
            current axis.
        Additional keyword arguments are pass on to the ellipse patch.

    Returns
    -------
        A matplotlib ellipse artist
    """
    pos = points.mean(axis=0)
    cov = np.cov(points, rowvar=False)
    return plot_cov_ellipse(cov, pos, nstd, ax, **kwargs)

def plot_cov_ellipse(cov, pos, nstd=2, ax=None, **kwargs):
    """
    Plots an `nstd` sigma error ellipse based on the specified covariance
    matrix (`cov`). Additional keyword arguments are passed on to the 
    ellipse patch artist.

    Parameters
    ----------
        cov : The 2x2 covariance matrix to base the ellipse on
        pos : The location of the center of the ellipse. Expects a 2-element
            sequence of [x0, y0].
        nstd : The radius of the ellipse in numbers of standard deviations.
            Defaults to 2 standard deviations.
        ax : The axis that the ellipse will be plotted on. Defaults to the 
            current axis.
        Additional keyword arguments are pass on to the ellipse patch.

    Returns
    -------
        A matplotlib ellipse artist
    """
    def eigsorted(cov):
        vals, vecs = np.linalg.eigh(cov)
        order = vals.argsort()[::-1]
        return vals[order], vecs[:,order]

    if ax is None:
        ax = plt.gca()

    vals, vecs = eigsorted(cov)
    theta = np.degrees(np.arctan2(*vecs[:,0][::-1]))

    # Width and height are "full" widths, not radius
    width, height = 2 * nstd * np.sqrt(vals)
    ellip = Ellipse(xy=pos, width=width, height=height, angle=theta, **kwargs)

    ax.add_artist(ellip)
    return ellip

if __name__ == '__main__':
    #-- Example usage -----------------------
    # Generate some random, correlated data
    points = np.random.multivariate_normal(
            mean=(1,1), cov=[[0.4, 9],[9, 10]], size=1000
            )
    # Plot the raw points...
    x, y = points.T
    plt.plot(x, y, 'ro')

    # Plot a transparent 3 standard deviation covariance ellipse
    plot_point_cov(points, nstd=3, alpha=0.5, color='green')

    plt.show()

enter image description here

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