Piyali Das Piyali Das - 3 months ago 16
Java Question

How do I introduce encapsulation in the following Java program?

I have created the following Java program. Its basic functionality is to perform addition, subtraction, multiplication, division and modular division on two numbers.

I have implemented the concept of object-oriented programming, but it is missing encapsulation.

How do I introduce encapsulation in it?

My code is:

/*
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*/


/**
*
* @author piyali
*/

public class Calculator {

/**
* @param args the command line arguments
*/
public static void main(String[] args) {

// TODO code application logic here
int x, y;
x = 13;
y = 5;

calculation add = new calculation();
calculation sub = new calculation();
calculation mul = new calculation();
calculation div = new calculation();
calculation mod = new calculation();

int addResult = add.addition(x, y);
int subResult = sub.subtraction(x, y);
int mulResult = mul.multiplication(x, y);
int divResult = mul.division(x, y);
int modResult = mod.modularDivision(x, y);

System.out.println("The addition of the numbers is " +addResult);
System.out.println("The subtraction of the two numbers is " +subResult);
System.out.println("The multiplication of the two numbers is " + mulResult);
System.out.println("The division of the two numbers is " +divResult);
System.out.println("The modular division of the two numbers is " + modResult);
}
}

class calculation {

int addition(int x, int y){
int z;
z = x + y;
return(z);
}

int subtraction(int x, int y){
int z;
z = x - y;
return(z);
}

int multiplication(int x, int y){
int z;
z = x * y;
return(z);
}

int division(int x, int y){
int z;
z = x / y;
return(z);
}

int modularDivision(int x, int y){
int z;
z = x % y;
return(z);
}
}

Answer

Well if you want true OOP and encapsulation, then create interface Calculation which has a method int calculate().

public interface Calculation {

     int calculate();
}

Now create classes which implements this interface such as Addition or Subtraction etc.

public class Addition implements Calculation {

     private final int x;
     private final int y;

     public Addition(int x, int y) {
         this.x = x;
         this.y = y;
     }

     @Override
     public int calculate(){
         return x + y;
     }
 }

Main method

public static void main(String[] args) {

    int x, y;
    x = 13;
    y = 5;

    Calculation add = new Addition(x, y);
    System.out.println(add.calculate());
}

Advantages of such design is that if you will want to add any extra mathematical operations such as root, percentage or even derivation, you will not need to modify any implementation of class. Just write extra class which implements Calculation.