Amelio Vazquez-Reina Amelio Vazquez-Reina - 1 year ago 66
Python Question

Specifying and saving a figure with exact size in pixels

Say I have an image of size 3841 x 7195 pixels. I would like to save the contents of the figure to disk, resulting in an image of the exact size I specify in pixels.

No axis, no titles. Just the image. I don't personally care about DPIs, as I only want to specify the size the image takes in the screen in disk in pixels.

I have read other threads, and they all seem to do conversions to inches and then specify the dimensions of the figure in inches and adjust dpi's in some way. I would like to avoid dealing with the potential loss of accuracy that could result from pixel-to-inches conversions.

I have tried with:

w = 7195
h = 3841
fig = plt.figure(frameon=False)
ax = plt.Axes(fig, [0., 0., 1., 1.])
ax.imshow(im_np, aspect='normal')
fig.savefig(some_path, dpi=1)

with no luck (Python complains that width and height must each be below 32768 (?))

From everything I have seen,
requires the figure size to be specified in
, but I am only interested in the pixels the figure takes in disk. How can I do this?

To clarify: I am looking for a way to do this with
, and not with other image-saving libraries.

Answer Source

Matplotlib doesn't work with pixels directly, but rather physical sizes and DPI. If you want to display a figure with a certain pixel size, you need to know the DPI of your monitor. For example this link will detect that for you.

If you have an image of 3841x7195 pixels it is unlikely that you monitor will be that large, so you won't be able to show a figure of that size (matplotlib requires the figure to fit in the screen, if you ask for a size too large it will shrink to the screen size). Let's imagine you want an 800x800 pixel image just for an example. Here's how to show an 800x800 pixel image in my monitor (my_dpi=96):

plt.figure(figsize=(800/my_dpi, 800/my_dpi), dpi=my_dpi)

So you basically just divide the dimensions in inches by your DPI.

If you want to save a figure of a specific size, then it is a different matter. Screen DPIs are not so important anymore (unless you ask for a figure that won't fit in the screen). Using the same example of the 800x800 pixel figure, we can save it in different resolutions using the dpi keyword of savefig. To save it in the same resolution as the screen just use the same dpi:

plt.savefig('my_fig.png', dpi=my_dpi)

To to save it as an 8000x8000 pixel image, use a dpi 10 times larger:

plt.savefig('my_fig.png', dpi=my_dpi * 10)

Note that the setting of the DPI is not supported by all backends. Here, the PNG backend is used, but the pdf and ps backends will implement the size differently. Also, changing the DPI and sizes will also affect things like fontsize. A larger DPI will keep the same relative sizes of fonts and elements, but if you want smaller fonts for a larger figure you need to increase the physical size instead of the DPI.

Getting back to your example, if you want to save a image with 3841 x 7195 pixels, you could do the following:

plt.figure(figsize=(3.841, 7.195), dpi=100)
( your code ...)
plt.savefig('myfig.png', dpi=1000)

Note that I used the figure dpi of 100 to fit in most screens, but saved with dpi=1000 to achieve the required resolution. In my system this produces a png with 3840x7190 pixels -- it seems that the DPI saved is always 0.02 pixels/inch smaller than the selected value, which will have a (small) effect on large image sizes. Some more discussion of this here.

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