However, I can't find the article I think I read.
Am I crazy or is there a way to do this (in Chrome)?
p.s. I'm not talking about window.location.hash, et al. If the above exists the answer to this question will be untrue.
You can now do this in most "modern" browsers!
Here is the original article I read (posted July 10, 2010): HTML5: Changing the browser-URL without refreshing page.
For a more in-depth look into pushState/replaceState/popstate (aka the HTML5 History API) see the MDN docs.
TL;DR, you can do this:
window.history.pushState("object or string", "Title", "/new-url");
See my answer to Modify the URL without reloading the page for a basic how-to.