Lugaxx Lugaxx - 4 months ago 39
Python Question

Python: Accessing YAML values using "dot notation"

I'm using a YAML configuration file. So this is the code to load my config in Python:

import os
import yaml
with open('./config.yml') as file:
config = yaml.safe_load(file)

This code actually creates a dictionary. Now the problem is that in order to access the values I need to use tons of brackets.


pass: secret


import os
import yaml
with open('./config.yml') as file:
config = yaml.safe_load(file)
print(config['mysql']['user']['pass']) # <--

I'd prefer something like that (dot notation):


So, my idea is to utilize the PyStache render() interface.

import os
import yaml
with open('./config.yml') as file:
config = yaml.safe_load(file)

import pystache
def get_config_value( yml_path, config ):
return pystache.render('{{' + yml_path + '}}', config)

get_config_value('mysql.user.pass', config)

Would that be a "good" solution? If not, what would be a better alternative?

Additional question [Solved]

I've decided to use Ilja Everilä's solution. But now I've got an additional question: How would you create a wrapper Config class around DotConf?

The following code doesn't work but I hope you get the idea what I'm trying to do:

class Config( DotDict ):
def __init__( self ):
with open('./config.yml') as file:

config = Config()


AttributeError: 'super' object has no attribute '__getattr__'


You just need to pass
to the constructor of the super class.

DotDict.__init__(self, yaml.safe_load(file))


You could reduce the config to the value (if one exists):

In [41]: config = {'asdf': {'asdf': {'qwer': 1}}}

In [42]: from functools import reduce
    ...: def get_config_value(key, cfg):
    ...:     return reduce(lambda c, k: c[k], key.split('.'), cfg)

In [43]: get_config_value('asdf.asdf.qwer', config)
Out[43]: 1

On a lighter note, you could create a wrapper and use attribute access

In [47]: class DotConfig:
    ...:     def __init__(self, cfg):
    ...:         self._cfg = cfg
    ...:     def __getattr__(self, k):
    ...:         v = self._cfg[k]
    ...:         if isinstance(v, dict):
    ...:             return DotConfig(v)
    ...:         return v

In [48]: DotConfig(config).asdf.asdf.qwer
Out[48]: 1

Finally, you could get really crazy and customize dict

In [58]: class DotDict(dict):
    ...:     def __getattr__(self, k):
    ...:         try:
    ...:             v = self[k]
    ...:         except KeyError:
    ...:             return super().__getattr__(k)
    ...:         if isinstance(v, dict):
    ...:             return DotDict(v)
    ...:         return v
    ...:     def __getitem__(self, k):
    ...:         if isinstance(k, str) and '.' in k:
    ...:             k = k.split('.')
    ...:         if isinstance(k, (list, tuple)):
    ...:             return reduce(lambda d, kk: d[kk], k, self)
    ...:         return super().__getitem__(k)
    ...:     def get(self, k, default=None):
    ...:         if isinstance(k, str) and '.' in k:
    ...:             try:
    ...:                 return self[k]
    ...:             except KeyError:
    ...:                 return default
    ...:         return super().get(k, default=default)

In [59]: dotconf = DotDict(config)

In [60]: dotconf['asdf.asdf.qwer']
Out[60]: 1

In [61]: dotconf['asdf', 'asdf', 'qwer']
Out[61]: 1

In [62]: dotconf.asdf.asdf.qwer
Out[62]: 1

In [63]: dotconf.get('asdf.asdf.qwer')
Out[63]: 1

In [64]: dotconf.get('asdf.asdf.asdf')

In [65]: dotconf.get('asdf.asdf.asdf', 'Nope')
Out[65]: 'Nope'