I am posting here concerning the emulation of computers on the local network, without destroying the local network.
When a computer connects to wifi on your local network, the computer can be seen in the "Network" section of Explorer(on Windows) and can be addressed via internet protocol.
My Goal: I would like to create a program such that I could receive streams of data from a remote computer via radio waves. The communication would be full duplex, there would be a transmitter and a receiver on both ends.
My Idea: I would like to utilize Qt to create an application which would receive and demodulate the radio waves like sound (through OpenAL buffers) which would act similarly to a driver program for the emulated computer connection, without destroying my connection to the local network. In this way, I believe that some truly novel things could be done, as I could for instance, use PuTTY one the emulated connected computer remotely while browsing my local network and the internet from my "base" computer.
Extended explanation: I want to perform a weather balloon project, sending a small computer (likely Raspberry Pi3) via a weather balloon to the far reaches of our atmosphere. One of my worries is being able to communicate with the device, such as receiving locational (telemetry) data in real time and being able to (potentially) retrieve arbitrary data in real time.
I understand that I may very well be approaching this question in the wrong way. There are probably existing systems out there that grant telemetry data and some arbitrary means to transfer file data, of which I am unaware. But from what I have seen, I also cannot find a device that utilizes this approach (packet radio emulation of a computer on the network). I have a personal curiosity towards this approach, and thusly will accept the answer which follows most in line with this approach.
Thank you very much for your time.
P.S: Video which inspired this idea:
What you're trying to do is called software-defined radio, and is rather popular. Modern computers, even little ones, are more than powerful enough to do the modulation/demodulation entirely in software.
There's very little left for you to do other than designing the RF channel, purchasing often open-source hardware, and using existing open-source SDR implementations out there. The input/output to your Qt program would be either a
QIODevice-like data stream that you'd couple to the SDR library's data scrambler/descrambler, or a packetized data stream that you could run some higher-level protocol on.
Do note that unless you limit yourself to an industrial license-free band, you are likely to need an FCC license to operate the transmitter, and an FAA license to launch the balloon.
Your question is essentially off-topic here. It probably belongs on amateur radio stack exchange under the [sdr] tag.
If you're thinking of implementing a complete WiFi stack using SDR, I'd like to discourage you: it's patent-encumbered up the wazoo, so no open-source implementations exist, and the sheer amount of standardese you'd have to wade through to do a compliant implementation is staggering. We're talking on the order of 5,000 pages of standardese, where almost every other sentence is important so if you ignore it, you're not compliant.