Daniel Gadd Daniel Gadd - 4 months ago 13
SQL Question

PostgreSQL Pick one single random row from multiple tables

How can we pick a random row from 3 tables, whereas the table row count for each table may vary. This would need to be fair if there not same count. This means if one table had only one row and the other table has 10 rows, then were much more likely get row from table with 10 rows. Each row in all tables get chance at winning

I was trying to convert this SQL code which I got from another Stack Overflow post here

SELECT preview_id, review_id
FROM (
select preview.*, row_number() over (order by newid()) as seqnum from
preview
) preview
JOIN (
select review.*, row_number() over (order by newid()) as seqnum
from review
) review ON preview.seqnum = review.seqnum;


3 Table schemas.

CREATE TABLE preview
(
preview_id SERIAL PRIMARY KEY NOT NULL,
preview_header VARCHAR(90) NOT NULL,
preview_text TEXT NOT NULL,
preview_stamp TIMESTAMP NOT NULL,
preview_modified TIMESTAMP NULL,
preview_comment_status BOOLEAN NOT NULL DEFAULT FALSE,
preview_rating_status BOOLEAN NOT NULL DEFAULT FALSE,
preview_notification_status BOOLEAN NOT NULL DEFAULT FALSE,
user_id INT REFERENCES app_user (user_id),
match_id INT REFERENCES match_game (match_id)
);
INSERT INTO preview(preview_header, preview_text, preview_stamp, user_id, match_id) VALUES ('Preview Header One', '"On the other hand, we denounce with righteous indignation and dislike men who are so beguiled and demoralized by the charms of pleasure of the moment, so blinded by desire, that they cannot foresee the pain and trouble that are bound to ensue; and equal blame belongs to those who fail in their duty through weakness of will, which is the same as saying through shrinking from toil and pain. These cases are perfectly simple and easy to distinguish. In a free hour, when our power of choice is untrammelled and when nothing prevents our being able to do what we like best, every pleasure is to be welcomed and every pain avoided. But in certain circumstances and owing to the claims of duty or the obligations of business it will frequently occur that pleasures have to be repudiated and annoyances accepted. The wise man therefore always holds in these matters to this principle of selection: he rejects pleasures to secure other greater pleasures, or else he endures pains to avoid worse pains."', now(), '1', '2' );
INSERT INTO preview(preview_header, preview_text, preview_stamp, user_id, match_id) VALUES ('Preview Header Two', '"There are many variations of passages of Lorem Ipsum available, but the majority have suffered alteration in some form, by injected humour, or randomised words which don''t look even slightly believable. If you are going to use a passage of Lorem Ipsum, you need to be sure there isn''t anything embarrassing hidden in the middle of text. All the Lorem Ipsum generators on the Internet tend to repeat predefined chunks as necessary, making this the first true generator on the Internet. It uses a dictionary of over 200 Latin words, combined with a handful of model sentence structures, to generate Lorem Ipsum which looks reasonable. The generated Lorem Ipsum is therefore always free from repetition, injected humour, or non-characteristic words etc."', now(), '2', '2' );
INSERT INTO preview(preview_header, preview_text, preview_stamp, user_id, match_id) VALUES ('Preview Header Three', '"Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit, sed do eiusmod tempor incididunt ut labore et dolore magna aliqua. Ut enim ad minim veniam, quis nostrud exercitation ullamco laboris nisi ut aliquip ex ea commodo consequat. Duis aute irure dolor in reprehenderit in voluptate velit esse cillum dolore eu fugiat nulla pariatur. Excepteur sint occaecat cupidatat non proident, sunt in culpa qui officia deserunt mollit anim id est laborum."', now(), '1', '3' );
INSERT INTO preview(preview_header, preview_text, preview_stamp, user_id, match_id) VALUES ('Preview Header Four', '"Sed ut perspiciatis unde omnis iste natus error sit voluptatem accusantium doloremque laudantium, totam rem aperiam, eaque ipsa quae ab illo inventore veritatis et quasi architecto beatae vitae dicta sunt explicabo. Nemo enim ipsam voluptatem quia voluptas sit aspernatur aut odit aut fugit, sed quia consequuntur magni dolores eos qui ratione voluptatem sequi nesciunt. Neque porro quisquam est, qui dolorem ipsum quia dolor sit amet, consectetur, adipisci velit, sed quia non numquam eius modi tempora incidunt ut labore et dolore magnam aliquam quaerat voluptatem. Ut enim ad minima veniam, quis nostrum exercitationem ullam corporis suscipit laboriosam, nisi ut aliquid ex ea commodi consequatur? Quis autem vel eum iure reprehenderit qui in ea voluptate velit esse quam nihil molestiae consequatur, vel illum qui dolorem eum fugiat quo voluptas nulla pariatur?"', now(), '2', '3' );
INSERT INTO preview(preview_header, preview_text, preview_stamp, user_id, match_id) VALUES ('Preview Header Five', '"But I must explain to you how all this mistaken idea of denouncing pleasure and praising pain was born and I will give you a complete account of the system, and expound the actual teachings of the great explorer of the truth, the master-builder of human happiness. No one rejects, dislikes, or avoids pleasure itself, because it is pleasure, but because those who do not know how to pursue pleasure rationally encounter consequences that are extremely painful. Nor again is there anyone who loves or pursues or desires to obtain pain of itself, because it is pain, but because occasionally circumstances occur in which toil and pain can procure him some great pleasure. To take a trivial example, which of us ever undertakes laborious physical exercise, except to obtain some advantage from it? But who has any right to find fault with a man who chooses to enjoy a pleasure that has no annoying consequences, or one who avoids a pain that produces no resultant pleasure?"', now(), '1', '4' );
INSERT INTO preview(preview_header, preview_text, preview_stamp, user_id, match_id) VALUES ('Preview Header Six', '"At vero eos et accusamus et iusto odio dignissimos ducimus qui blanditiis praesentium voluptatum deleniti atque corrupti quos dolores et quas molestias excepturi sint occaecati cupiditate non provident, similique sunt in culpa qui officia deserunt mollitia animi, id est laborum et dolorum fuga. Et harum quidem rerum facilis est et expedita distinctio. Nam libero tempore, cum soluta nobis est eligendi optio cumque nihil impedit quo minus id quod maxime placeat facere possimus, omnis voluptas assumenda est, omnis dolor repellendus. Temporibus autem quibusdam et aut officiis debitis aut rerum necessitatibus saepe eveniet ut et voluptates repudiandae sint et molestiae non recusandae. Itaque earum rerum hic tenetur a sapiente delectus, ut aut reiciendis voluptatibus maiores alias consequatur aut perferendis doloribus asperiores repellat."', now(), '3', '4' );


CREATE TABLE article
(
article_id SERIAL PRIMARY KEY NOT NULL,
article_header VARCHAR(90) NOT NULL,
article_text TEXT NOT NULL,
article_stamp TIMESTAMP NOT NULL,
article_modified TIMESTAMP NULL,
article_comment_status BOOLEAN NOT NULL DEFAULT FALSE,
article_rating_status BOOLEAN NOT NULL DEFAULT FALSE,
article_notification_status BOOLEAN NOT NULL DEFAULT FALSE,
user_id INT REFERENCES app_user (user_id)
);
SELECT * FROM article;
INSERT INTO article(article_header, article_text, article_stamp, user_id) VALUES ('Article Header One', '"On the other hand, we denounce with righteous indignation and dislike men who are so beguiled and demoralized by the charms of pleasure of the moment, so blinded by desire, that they cannot foresee the pain and trouble that are bound to ensue; and equal blame belongs to those who fail in their duty through weakness of will, which is the same as saying through shrinking from toil and pain. These cases are perfectly simple and easy to distinguish. In a free hour, when our power of choice is untrammelled and when nothing prevents our being able to do what we like best, every pleasure is to be welcomed and every pain avoided. But in certain circumstances and owing to the claims of duty or the obligations of business it will frequently occur that pleasures have to be repudiated and annoyances accepted. The wise man therefore always holds in these matters to this principle of selection: he rejects pleasures to secure other greater pleasures, or else he endures pains to avoid worse pains."', now(), '1');
INSERT INTO article(article_header, article_text, article_stamp, user_id) VALUES ('Article Header Two', '"There are many variations of passages of Lorem Ipsum available, but the majority have suffered alteration in some form, by injected humour, or randomised words which don''t look even slightly believable. If you are going to use a passage of Lorem Ipsum, you need to be sure there isn''t anything embarrassing hidden in the middle of text. All the Lorem Ipsum generators on the Internet tend to repeat predefined chunks as necessary, making this the first true generator on the Internet. It uses a dictionary of over 200 Latin words, combined with a handful of model sentence structures, to generate Lorem Ipsum which looks reasonable. The generated Lorem Ipsum is therefore always free from repetition, injected humour, or non-characteristic words etc."', now(), '4');
INSERT INTO article(article_header, article_text, article_stamp, user_id) VALUES ('Article Header Three', '"Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit, sed do eiusmod tempor incididunt ut labore et dolore magna aliqua. Ut enim ad minim veniam, quis nostrud exercitation ullamco laboris nisi ut aliquip ex ea commodo consequat. Duis aute irure dolor in reprehenderit in voluptate velit esse cillum dolore eu fugiat nulla pariatur. Excepteur sint occaecat cupidatat non proident, sunt in culpa qui officia deserunt mollit anim id est laborum."', now(), '1');
INSERT INTO article(article_header, article_text, article_stamp, user_id) VALUES ('Article Header Four', '"Sed ut perspiciatis unde omnis iste natus error sit voluptatem accusantium doloremque laudantium, totam rem aperiam, eaque ipsa quae ab illo inventore veritatis et quasi architecto beatae vitae dicta sunt explicabo. Nemo enim ipsam voluptatem quia voluptas sit aspernatur aut odit aut fugit, sed quia consequuntur magni dolores eos qui ratione voluptatem sequi nesciunt. Neque porro quisquam est, qui dolorem ipsum quia dolor sit amet, consectetur, adipisci velit, sed quia non numquam eius modi tempora incidunt ut labore et dolore magnam aliquam quaerat voluptatem. Ut enim ad minima veniam, quis nostrum exercitationem ullam corporis suscipit laboriosam, nisi ut aliquid ex ea commodi consequatur? Quis autem vel eum iure reprehenderit qui in ea voluptate velit esse quam nihil molestiae consequatur, vel illum qui dolorem eum fugiat quo voluptas nulla pariatur?"', now(), '2');
INSERT INTO article(article_header, article_text, article_stamp, user_id) VALUES ('Article Header Five', '"But I must explain to you how all this mistaken idea of denouncing pleasure and praising pain was born and I will give you a complete account of the system, and expound the actual teachings of the great explorer of the truth, the master-builder of human happiness. No one rejects, dislikes, or avoids pleasure itself, because it is pleasure, but because those who do not know how to pursue pleasure rationally encounter consequences that are extremely painful. Nor again is there anyone who loves or pursues or desires to obtain pain of itself, because it is pain, but because occasionally circumstances occur in which toil and pain can procure him some great pleasure. To take a trivial example, which of us ever undertakes laborious physical exercise, except to obtain some advantage from it? But who has any right to find fault with a man who chooses to enjoy a pleasure that has no annoying consequences, or one who avoids a pain that produces no resultant pleasure?"', now(), '1');
INSERT INTO article(article_header, article_text, article_stamp, user_id) VALUES ('Article Header Six', '"At vero eos et accusamus et iusto odio dignissimos ducimus qui blanditiis praesentium voluptatum deleniti atque corrupti quos dolores et quas molestias excepturi sint occaecati cupiditate non provident, similique sunt in culpa qui officia deserunt mollitia animi, id est laborum et dolorum fuga. Et harum quidem rerum facilis est et expedita distinctio. Nam libero tempore, cum soluta nobis est eligendi optio cumque nihil impedit quo minus id quod maxime placeat facere possimus, omnis voluptas assumenda est, omnis dolor repellendus. Temporibus autem quibusdam et aut officiis debitis aut rerum necessitatibus saepe eveniet ut et voluptates repudiandae sint et molestiae non recusandae. Itaque earum rerum hic tenetur a sapiente delectus, ut aut reiciendis voluptatibus maiores alias consequatur aut perferendis doloribus asperiores repellat."', now(), '4');

CREATE TABLE review
(
review_id SERIAL PRIMARY KEY NOT NULL,
review_header VARCHAR(90) NOT NULL,
review_text TEXT NOT NULL,
review_stamp TIMESTAMP NOT NULL,
review_modified TIMESTAMP NULL,
review_comment_status BOOLEAN NOT NULL DEFAULT FALSE,
review_rating_status BOOLEAN NOT NULL DEFAULT FALSE,
review_notification_status BOOLEAN NOT NULL DEFAULT FALSE,
user_id INT REFERENCES app_user (user_id),
match_id INT REFERENCES match_game (match_id)
);
INSERT INTO review(review_header, review_text, review_stamp, user_id, match_id) VALUES ('Preview Header One', '"On the other hand, we denounce with righteous indignation and dislike men who are so beguiled and demoralized by the charms of pleasure of the moment, so blinded by desire, that they cannot foresee the pain and trouble that are bound to ensue; and equal blame belongs to those who fail in their duty through weakness of will, which is the same as saying through shrinking from toil and pain. These cases are perfectly simple and easy to distinguish. In a free hour, when our power of choice is untrammelled and when nothing prevents our being able to do what we like best, every pleasure is to be welcomed and every pain avoided. But in certain circumstances and owing to the claims of duty or the obligations of business it will frequently occur that pleasures have to be repudiated and annoyances accepted. The wise man therefore always holds in these matters to this principle of selection: he rejects pleasures to secure other greater pleasures, or else he endures pains to avoid worse pains."', now(), '4', '9' );
INSERT INTO review(review_header, review_text, review_stamp, user_id, match_id) VALUES ('Preview Header Two', '"There are many variations of passages of Lorem Ipsum available, but the majority have suffered alteration in some form, by injected humour, or randomised words which don''t look even slightly believable. If you are going to use a passage of Lorem Ipsum, you need to be sure there isn''t anything embarrassing hidden in the middle of text. All the Lorem Ipsum generators on the Internet tend to repeat predefined chunks as necessary, making this the first true generator on the Internet. It uses a dictionary of over 200 Latin words, combined with a handful of model sentence structures, to generate Lorem Ipsum which looks reasonable. The generated Lorem Ipsum is therefore always free from repetition, injected humour, or non-characteristic words etc."', now(), '2', '8' );
INSERT INTO review(review_header, review_text, review_stamp, user_id, match_id) VALUES ('Preview Header Three', '"Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit, sed do eiusmod tempor incididunt ut labore et dolore magna aliqua. Ut enim ad minim veniam, quis nostrud exercitation ullamco laboris nisi ut aliquip ex ea commodo consequat. Duis aute irure dolor in reprehenderit in voluptate velit esse cillum dolore eu fugiat nulla pariatur. Excepteur sint occaecat cupidatat non proident, sunt in culpa qui officia deserunt mollit anim id est laborum."', now(), '2', '9' );
INSERT INTO review(review_header, review_text, review_stamp, user_id, match_id) VALUES ('Preview Header Four', '"Sed ut perspiciatis unde omnis iste natus error sit voluptatem accusantium doloremque laudantium, totam rem aperiam, eaque ipsa quae ab illo inventore veritatis et quasi architecto beatae vitae dicta sunt explicabo. Nemo enim ipsam voluptatem quia voluptas sit aspernatur aut odit aut fugit, sed quia consequuntur magni dolores eos qui ratione voluptatem sequi nesciunt. Neque porro quisquam est, qui dolorem ipsum quia dolor sit amet, consectetur, adipisci velit, sed quia non numquam eius modi tempora incidunt ut labore et dolore magnam aliquam quaerat voluptatem. Ut enim ad minima veniam, quis nostrum exercitationem ullam corporis suscipit laboriosam, nisi ut aliquid ex ea commodi consequatur? Quis autem vel eum iure reprehenderit qui in ea voluptate velit esse quam nihil molestiae consequatur, vel illum qui dolorem eum fugiat quo voluptas nulla pariatur?"', now(), '2', '9' );
INSERT INTO review(review_header, review_text, review_stamp, user_id, match_id) VALUES ('Preview Header Five', '"But I must explain to you how all this mistaken idea of denouncing pleasure and praising pain was born and I will give you a complete account of the system, and expound the actual teachings of the great explorer of the truth, the master-builder of human happiness. No one rejects, dislikes, or avoids pleasure itself, because it is pleasure, but because those who do not know how to pursue pleasure rationally encounter consequences that are extremely painful. Nor again is there anyone who loves or pursues or desires to obtain pain of itself, because it is pain, but because occasionally circumstances occur in which toil and pain can procure him some great pleasure. To take a trivial example, which of us ever undertakes laborious physical exercise, except to obtain some advantage from it? But who has any right to find fault with a man who chooses to enjoy a pleasure that has no annoying consequences, or one who avoids a pain that produces no resultant pleasure?"', now(), '3', '9' );
INSERT INTO review(review_header, review_text, review_stamp, user_id, match_id) VALUES ('Preview Header Six', '"At vero eos et accusamus et iusto odio dignissimos ducimus qui blanditiis praesentium voluptatum deleniti atque corrupti quos dolores et quas molestias excepturi sint occaecati cupiditate non provident, similique sunt in culpa qui officia deserunt mollitia animi, id est laborum et dolorum fuga. Et harum quidem rerum facilis est et expedita distinctio. Nam libero tempore, cum soluta nobis est eligendi optio cumque nihil impedit quo minus id quod maxime placeat facere possimus, omnis voluptas assumenda est, omnis dolor repellendus. Temporibus autem quibusdam et aut officiis debitis aut rerum necessitatibus saepe eveniet ut et voluptates repudiandae sint et molestiae non recusandae. Itaque earum rerum hic tenetur a sapiente delectus, ut aut reiciendis voluptatibus maiores alias consequatur aut perferendis doloribus asperiores repellat."', now(), '1', '8' );


The desired result will be a single full row from any one these tables. So each row has a fair chance at been the winner

Answer

If tables has similar structure just use UNION ALL

 SELECT *,
        row_number() over (order by newid()) as seqnum
 FROM ( SELECT preview.* FROM preview
        UNION ALL
        SELECT review.* FROM review
      ) T

if doesnt have similar structure you need to do some tricks to make the union with same number of columns.

 SELECT *,
        row_number() over (order by newid()) as seqnum
 FROM ( SELECT 'preview' as `source`, p.field1, p.field2, null    , null 
        FROM preview P
        UNION ALL
        SELECT 'review'  as `source`, null    , null    , r.field1, r.field2
        FROM review R
      ) T