I'm writing a library that has several public classes and methods, as well as several private or internal classes and methods that the library itself uses.
In the public methods I have a null check and a throw like this:
public int DoSomething(int number)
if (number == null)
throw new ArgumentNullException(nameof(number));
Ultimately, there isn't a uniform consensus on this. So instead of giving a yes or no answer, I'll try to list the considerations for making this decision:
Null checks bloat your code. If your procedures are concise, the null guards at the beginning of them may form a significant part of the overall size of the procedure, without expressing the purpose or behaviour of that procedure.
Null checks expressively state a precondition. If a method is going to fail when one of the values is null, having a null check at the top is a good way to demonstrate this to a casual reader without them having to hunt for where it's dereferenced. To improve this, people often use helper methods with names like
Guard.AgainstNull, instead of having to write the check each time.
Checks in private methods are untestable. By introducing a branch in your code which you have no way of fully traversing, you make it impossible to fully test that method. This conflicts with the point of view that tests document the behaviour of a class, and that that class's code exists to provide that behaviour.
The severity of letting a null through depends on the situation. Often, if a null does get into the method, it'll be dereferenced a few lines later and you'll get a
NullReferenceException. This really isn't much less clear than throwing an
ArgumentNullException. On the other hand, if that reference is passed around quite a bit before being dereferenced, or if throwing an NRE will leave things in a messy state, then throwing early is much more important.
Some libraries, like .NET's Code Contracts, allow a degree of static analysis, which can add an extra benefit to your checks.
If you're working on a project with others, there may be existing team or project standards covering this.