Cody Cody - 1 year ago 402
Java Question

Android 6.0 (Marshmallow): How to play midi notes?

I'm creating an app that generates live instrument sounds and I'm planning on using the new Midi API featured in Android Marshmallow (version 6.0). I've read the package overview document here and I know how to generate Midi notes but i'm still unsure: how do I actually play these notes after I've generated their Midi data?

Do I need a synthesizer program to play Midi notes? If so, do I have to make my own or is one provided by Android or a 3rd party?

I am a novice with Midi so please be as descriptive as possible with your answer.

What i've tried so far:
I've created a Midi manager object and opened an input port

MidiManager m = (MidiManager)context.getSystemService(Context.MIDI_SERVICE);
MidiInputPort inputPort = device.openInputPort(index);

Then, i've sent a test noteOn midi message to the port

byte[] buffer = new byte[32];
int numBytes = 0;
int channel = 3; // MIDI channels 1-16 are encoded as 0-15.
buffer[numBytes++] = (byte)(0x90 + (channel - 1)); // note on
buffer[numBytes++] = (byte)60; // pitch is middle C
buffer[numBytes++] = (byte)127; // max velocity
int offset = 0;
// post is non-blocking
inputPort.send(buffer, offset, numBytes);

I've also set up a class to receive the midi note messages

class MyReceiver extends MidiReceiver {
public void onSend(byte[] data, int offset,
int count, long timestamp) throws IOException {
// parse MIDI or whatever
MidiOutputPort outputPort = device.openOutputPort(index);
outputPort.connect(new MyReceiver());

Now, here's where i'm most confused. The use case of my app is to be an all-in-one composition & playback tool for making music. In other words, my app needs to contain or use a virtual midi device (like an intent of another app's midi synthesizer). Unless someone already made such a synthesizer, I must create one myself within my app's lifecycle. How do I actually actually convert a received midi noteOn() into sound coming out of my speakers? I'm especially confused because there also has to be a way to programmatically decide what type of instrument the note sounds like it's coming from: is this also done in a synthesizer?

Midi support in Android Marshmallow is fairly new so I haven't been able to find any tutorials or sample synthesizer apps online. Any insight is appreciated.

Answer Source

I haven't found any "official" way to control the internal synthesizer from Java code.

Probably the easiest option is to use the Android midi driver for the Sonivox synthesizer.

Get it as an AAR package (unzip the *.zip) and store the *.aar file somewhere in your workspace. The path doesn't really matter and it doesn't need to be inside your own app's folder structure but the "libs" folder inside your project could be a logical place.

With your Android project open in Android Studio:

File -> New -> New Module -> Import .JAR/.AAR Package -> Next -> Find and select the "MidiDriver-all-release.aar" and change the subproject name if you want. -> Finish

Wait for Gradle to do it's magic and then go to your "app" module's settings (your own app project's settings) to the "Dependencies" tab and add (with the green "+" sign) the MIDI Driver as a module dependency. Now you have access to the MIDI Driver:

import org.billthefarmer.mididriver.MidiDriver;
MidiDriver midiDriver = new MidiDriver();

Without having to worry anything about NDK and C++ you have these Java methods available:

// Not really necessary. Receives a callback when/if start() has succeeded.
// Starts the driver.
// Receives the driver's config info.
// Stops the driver.
// Just calls write().
// Sends a MIDI event to the synthesizer.

A very basic "proof of concept" for playing and stopping a note could something like:

package com.example.miditest;

import android.os.Bundle;
import android.util.Log;
import android.view.MotionEvent;
import android.view.View;
import android.widget.Button;

import org.billthefarmer.mididriver.MidiDriver;

public class MainActivity extends AppCompatActivity implements MidiDriver.OnMidiStartListener,
        View.OnTouchListener {

    private MidiDriver midiDriver;
    private byte[] event;
    private int[] config;
    private Button buttonPlayNote;

    protected void onCreate(Bundle savedInstanceState) {

        buttonPlayNote = (Button)findViewById(;

        // Instantiate the driver.
        midiDriver = new MidiDriver();
        // Set the listener.

    protected void onResume() {

        // Get the configuration.
        config = midiDriver.config();

        // Print out the details.
        Log.d(this.getClass().getName(), "maxVoices: " + config[0]);
        Log.d(this.getClass().getName(), "numChannels: " + config[1]);
        Log.d(this.getClass().getName(), "sampleRate: " + config[2]);
        Log.d(this.getClass().getName(), "mixBufferSize: " + config[3]);

    protected void onPause() {

    public void onMidiStart() {
        Log.d(this.getClass().getName(), "onMidiStart()");

    private void playNote() {

        // Construct a note ON message for the middle C at maximum velocity on channel 1:
        event = new byte[3];
        event[0] = (byte) (0x90 | 0x00);  // 0x90 = note On, 0x00 = channel 1
        event[1] = (byte) 0x3C;  // 0x3C = middle C
        event[2] = (byte) 0x7F;  // 0x7F = the maximum velocity (127)

        // Internally this just calls write() and can be considered obsoleted:

        // Send the MIDI event to the synthesizer.


    private void stopNote() {

        // Construct a note OFF message for the middle C at minimum velocity on channel 1:
        event = new byte[3];
        event[0] = (byte) (0x80 | 0x00);  // 0x80 = note Off, 0x00 = channel 1
        event[1] = (byte) 0x3C;  // 0x3C = middle C
        event[2] = (byte) 0x00;  // 0x00 = the minimum velocity (0)

        // Send the MIDI event to the synthesizer.


    public boolean onTouch(View v, MotionEvent event) {

        Log.d(this.getClass().getName(), "Motion event: " + event);

        if (v.getId() == {
            if (event.getAction() == MotionEvent.ACTION_DOWN) {
                Log.d(this.getClass().getName(), "MotionEvent.ACTION_DOWN");
            if (event.getAction() == MotionEvent.ACTION_UP) {
                Log.d(this.getClass().getName(), "MotionEvent.ACTION_UP");

        return false;

The layout file just has one button that plays the predefined note when held down and stops it when released:

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="utf-8"?>
<LinearLayout xmlns:android=""

        android:text="Play a note"
        android:id="@+id/buttonPlayNote" />

It is actually this simple. The code above could well be a starting point for a touch piano app with 128 selectable instruments, very decent latency and a proper "note off" functionality which many apps lack.

As for choosing the instrument: You'll just need to send a MIDI "program change" message to the channel on which you intend to play to choose one of the 128 sounds in the General MIDI soundset. But that's related to the details of MIDI and not to the usage of the library.

Likewise you'll probably want to abstract away the low level details of MIDI so that you can easily play a specific note on a specific channel with a specific instrument at a specific velocity for a specific time and for that you might find some clues from all the open source Java and MIDI related applications and libraries made so far.

This approach doesn't require Android 6.0 by the way. And at the moment only 4.6 % of devices visiting the Play Store run Android 6.x so there wouldn't be much audience for your app.

Of course if you want to use the package you could then use the library to implement a to receive the MIDI events and play them on the internal synthesizer. Google already has some demo code that plays notes with square and saw waves. Just replace that with the internal synthesizer.

Some other options could be to check out what's the status with porting FluidSynth to Android. I guess there might be something available.

Edit: Other possibly interesting libraries:

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