Cryptic - 6 months ago 64

Java Question

I'm trying to do a small implementation of a Feistel Cipher. This is what I've been trying:

`int[] left = {1,2,3};//left half of plaintext`

int[] right = {4,5,6};//right half of plaintext

int temp[];//temp for swapping values

//encrypt the plaintext (left and right arrays)

for(int r = 0; r < 3; r++) {//the number of rounds

for(int i = 0; i < right.length; i++){

right[i] = left[i] ^ (scramble(right[i], KEY, r));

}

temp = left;

left = right;

right = temp;

}

//swap left and right array before decryption

temp = left;

left = right;

right = temp;

for(int r = 3; r > 0; r--) {//start from the last round

for(int i = 0; i < right.length; i++) {

right[i] = left[i] ^ (scramble(right[i], KEY, r));

}

//again, swap arrays to do the next round

temp = left;

left = right;

right = temp;

}

The round function,

`scramble`

`private static int scramble(int character, int key, int roundNumber) {`

return (int) Math.pow(2 * roundNumber * key, character) % 15;

}

I am attempting to first encrypt the left and right halves of the plaintext, and then run it through the decryption rounds - so by the end, the array's values should be [1,2,3] and [4,5,6] (back to the plaintext). Using a key input of 8, after decryption I'm getting values of [15, 13, 0] and [8, 12, 1]. Where am I going wrong with this?

For simplicity I'm just using a constant as the key right now as well as input of integers as opposed to reading from a file/using byte arrays.

edit:

counting for the loops was incorrect. Changed the "encryption loop" to:

`for(int r = 1; r < 4; r++) {//the number of rounds`

for(int i = 0; i < right.length; i++){

right[i] = left[i] ^ (scramble(right[i], KEY, r));

}

temp = left;

left = right;

right = temp;

}

The loops now count rounds 1,2,3 (encryption) and 3,2,1 (decryption). However, the decryption still isn't resulting in the correct plaintext.

Answer

Feistel works by applying a function of the right side TO the left side, i.e. left = left ^ F(right) then swap. This is equivalent to right**2** = left**1** ^ F(right1), left**2** = right**1** but that formulation works better in languages with parallel or destructuring assignment which Java doesn't have. See the picture at https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Feistel_cipher . In addition your code organization does one too many swap at the end of decrypt. Fixing both of those:

```
static void SO40331050Feistel (){
final int KEY = 8;
int[] left = {1,2,3}, right = {4,5,6}, temp;
System.out.println ("=====WRONG=====");
for(int r = 1; r <= 3; r++) {
for(int i = 0; i < right.length; i++){
right[i] = left[i] ^ (scramble(right[i], KEY, r));
}
System.out.println ("ENC"+r +" "+Arrays.toString(left) +" "+Arrays.toString(right));
temp = left; left = right; right = temp;
}
temp = left; left = right; right = temp; // swap before decrypt
for(int r = 3; r >= 1; r--) {
for(int i = 0; i < right.length; i++) {
right[i] = left[i] ^ (scramble(right[i], KEY, r));
}
System.out.println ("DEC"+r + " "+Arrays.toString(left) +" "+Arrays.toString(right));
temp = left; left = right; right = temp;
}
left = new int[]{1,2,3}; right = new int[]{4,5,6}; // reset
System.out.println ("=====RIGHT=====");
for(int r = 1; r <= 3; r++) {
for(int i = 0; i < right.length; i++){
left[i] ^= (scramble(right[i], KEY, r));
}
System.out.println ("ENC"+r +" "+Arrays.toString(left) +" "+Arrays.toString(right));
temp = left; left = right; right = temp; // swap after
}
for(int r = 3; r >= 1; r--) {
temp = left; left = right; right = temp; // swap before on decrypt
for(int i = 0; i < right.length; i++) {
left[i] ^= (scramble(right[i], KEY, r));
}
System.out.println ("DEC"+r + " "+Arrays.toString(left) +" "+Arrays.toString(right));
}
}
```

RESULTS:

```
=====WRONG=====
ENC1 [1, 2, 3] [0, 3, 2]
ENC2 [0, 3, 2] [2, 7, 10]
ENC3 [2, 7, 10] [3, 11, 3]
DEC3 [2, 7, 10] [14, 0, 6]
DEC2 [14, 0, 6] [10, 7, 1]
DEC1 [10, 7, 1] [13, 6, 0]
=====RIGHT=====
ENC1 [0, 3, 2] [4, 5, 6]
ENC2 [5, 13, 2] [0, 3, 2]
ENC3 [3, 4, 11] [5, 13, 2]
DEC3 [0, 3, 2] [5, 13, 2]
DEC2 [4, 5, 6] [0, 3, 2]
DEC1 [1, 2, 3] [4, 5, 6]
```

Also, it is usual for F to use the whole right half and produce a result that applies to the whole left half; by doing it separately on 32-bit int pieces you are actually running three independent 32-bit block ciphers in parallel, effectively in ECB mode. Both 32-bit block and ECB would be serious weaknesses if this were a real cipher.