I'm looking for a shorter way to write simple one-offs like this:
perl -e 'use 5.016;say 4.3%3'
perl -e 'print 4.3%3 ."\n"'
perl -e 'say 4.3%3'
perl -E 'say ...';
This is like
-e but turns on all features (which
say is one of). From perldoc/perlrun:
may be used to enter one line of program. If -e is given, Perl will not look for a filename in the argument list. [...]
behaves just like -e, except that it implicitly enables all optional features (in the main compilation unit). See feature.
To be honest: my answer doesn't exactly answer your original question. You asked how to use/require a minimum Perl version. For that the solution given in @ThisSuitIsBlackNot's comment fits better:
perl -M5.016 -e 'say ...'
-E solution blindly turns on all features of your current Perl's version. You can decide which one to use, depending on your intention.
You also asked for an environment variable. There's indeed one:
export PERL5OPT='-Mstrict -Mwarnings -M5.016'
Switches in this variable are treated as if they were on every Perl command line.