Antonio Ortiz Antonio Ortiz - 2 years ago 77
Javascript Question

When is this scope/closure being garbage collected in javaScript?

I am doing a course which is going through scope/closures and briefly mentions garbage collection. During the course a question is posed:

How long does the scope stay around? And the answer was—until
there's no longer any references to it. Yep, so what we basically said
was, a closure is kind of like a reference to a hidden scope object.
So as long as there's some function that still has a closure over the
scope, that scope's going to stay around. But as soon as that closure
goes away, scope can get garbage collected. "

var sum = function sumHndlr(x, y) {
if (y !== undefined) {
return x + y;
} else {
return function(y) {
return x + y;

So to me, the reference to the closure is when we assigned the function to the
variable, but won't that mean it lasts forever or am I not understanding the way the js will execute in regards to the compiler parser etc.?

Answer Source

Very briefly, garbage collection is a background process of the Javascript interpreter / virtual machine that automatically frees the memory of objects no longer needed by your program.

For example, since you think of it for event listeners: when you remove an event listener (a function usually) from some event dispatcher, it is likely that no other part of the program will have a reference to the event listener. Therefore, the garbage collector can and will (at some unknown time) free the memory that was taken by the event listener.

Since a closure references a scope object, in order to garbage-collect a closure it needs not only be unreferenced, but also the scope.

If I modify a bit your example:

/* some stuff ... */
function add10(a) {
  var adder = function (x) {
     return function(y) {
       return x + y;

  var sum = adder(10); //creates a closure
  return sum(a);

var thirty = add10(20);

/* Some more stuff ... */

After add10 is called, even though the program continues to execute some more stuff, the garbage collector can free the memory associated to the closure sum, because it is no longer referenced, nor is the scope associated to it.

Whereas in this example:

/* some stuff ... */
function add10AndGet20Adder(a) {
  var adders = function (x, y) {
     return [function(z) {
       return x + z;
     }, function(z) {
       return y + z;

  var sums = adders(10, 20); //creates a closure
  return [sums[0](a), sums[1]];

var result = add10AndGet20Adder(50);
var sixty = result[0];
var add20 = result[1];

/* Some more stuff ... */

When executing some more stuff, sums[0] is no longer referenced, BUT add20 (sums[1]) still has a reference to the scope that references x andy, therefore none of the two closures in sums can be freed by the garbage collector, until add20 is referenced by the program.

I hope this makes it clearer, even though the examples are of course nowhere close to real code. In practice, you need to worry about this only if you develop a long-lived program (such as a single page application or nodeJS server) with complicated usage of closures. Otherwise, the memory usage of the closures is unlikely to be a problem.

This SO question gives more details about Javascript garbage collection: What is JavaScript garbage collection?

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