jcora jcora -4 years ago 169
Linux Question

How to make g++ search for header files in a specific directory?

I have a project (a library) that is subdivided into a few directories with code in them. I'd like to to have g++ search for header files in the project's root directory, so I can avoid different include paths for same header files across multiple source files.

Mainly, the

directory has sub-directories
, all of which have
files inside. If some source file in A wanted to include
, which was in B, it would have to do it like this:
#include "../B/file.hpp"
. Same for another source file that was in C. But, if A itself had sub-directories with files that needed
, then, it would be inconsistent and would cause errors if I decided to move files (because the include path would be

Also, this would need to work from other projects as well, which reside outside of
. I already know that there is an option to manually copy all my header files into a default-search directory, but I'd like to do this the way I described.

Edit: all programs using the library must compile only with
g++ prog.cpp lib.a -o prog
. That means permanently setting the include path for g++!

Answer Source


#include <B/file.hpp>


#include <B/file.hpp>

Compile using:

g++ -I /your/source/root /your/source/root/A/code.cpp
g++ -I /your/source/root /your/source/root/A/a/code2.cpp


You can use environment variables to change the path g++ looks for header files. From man page:

Some additional environments variables affect the behavior of the preprocessor.


Each variable's value is a list of directories separated by a special character, much like PATH, in which to look for header files. The special character, "PATH_SEPARATOR", is target-dependent and determined at GCC build time. For Microsoft Windows-based targets it is a semicolon, and for almost all other targets it is a colon.

CPATH specifies a list of directories to be searched as if specified with -I, but after any paths given with -I options on the command line. This environment variable is used regardless of which language is being preprocessed.

The remaining environment variables apply only when preprocessing the particular language indicated. Each specifies a list of directories to be searched as if specified with -isystem, but after any paths given with -isystem options on the command line.

In all these variables, an empty element instructs the compiler to search its current working directory. Empty elements can appear at the beginning or end of a path. For instance, if the value of CPATH is ":/special/include", that has the same effect as -I. -I/special/include.

There are many ways you can change an environment variable. On bash prompt you can do this:

$ export CPATH=/your/source/root
$ g++ /your/source/root/A/code.cpp
$ g++ /your/source/root/A/a/code2.cpp

You can of course add this in your Makefile etc.

Recommended from our users: Dynamic Network Monitoring from WhatsUp Gold from IPSwitch. Free Download